Modern Architecture and Urbanism in China
Modernizing influences, largely from the hands of foreign powers, first forcefully entered into China and began to take root in the aftermath of the Opium War and the signing of the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842. Over time, Qing Dynasty China\’s earlier stand-offish attitude towards these incursions became replaced by concern with the foreign threat and increasingly serious questioning of their own institutional structures and place in the world. By 1911 Revolution was well underway, resulting in the toppling of the Qing and the unsteady formation of a modern republic. Years past, under deteriorated conditions of factionalism and with Japan, by then a power in East Asia, making territorial demands. Two opposing ideological camps — the Communists and the Nationalists — also began to emerge, although with the Nationalists in the ascendancy throughout large parts of China. With the full-scale outbreak of the War of Resistance against Japan in 1937, a United Front was joined, only to be irreversibly broken at the end of World War II with the advent of civil war. The victorious Communists came to power in 1949 and immediately began to re-fashion China as a modern Marxist-socialist state. After a short though propitious start, the country was then plunged into the tragic Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, also becoming isolated once again. Then in 1978, with the historic opening up to the outside world, economic if not social circumstances began to change drastically, as China shifted from being a welfare state into a socialist market economy. The contemporary period now finds the nation with burgeoning modern industrialization and urbanization and perhaps a certain ambivalence about the precise shape of its future identity. Against this backdrop, modern architecture and urbanism has developed unevenly, before coming on more strongly during the past decade or so, at least in some regions of China. Therefore, rather than attempting to provide a continuous cohesive narrative, this course will concentrate on specific episodes of modern architecture and urban development. Of particular interest will be the work of several generations of Chinese architects, as well as that of foreign architects, working in China during various periods. Among the first generation of essentially foreign-trained architects from the 1920s and 30s will be Yang Tingbao, Liang Sicheng, Dong Dayou, Tong Jun, Lin Keming and Song-sing Kwan, together with western counterparts like Henry Murphy, Harry Hussey, Francis Kales, Curt Rothkegel and Laszlo Hudec, as well as firms like Palmer and Turner. Notable second generation architects, educated primarily during the 1940s, will include: Zhang Bo, Wu Liangyong, Chen Dengao, Zhang Kaiji, Dai Nianci and Xiong Ming, followed by a third generation, comprising at least Xing Tonghe, Zhang Jinqiu, Zhu Jailu and Zheng Shiling. Study of the contemporary period will also include work by numerous foreign architects, including: I.M. Pei, Skidmore Owings and Merrill, Lord Foster, Jean-Marie Charpentier and Paul Andreu, as well as by some members of the younger fourth generation of Chinese architects like Ma Qingyun, Cui Kai and Zhang Yonghe, Wang Lu, Lu Jiakun, Lu Jiwei and Rocco Lim, among others.The aim of the course is to introduce students to these modern developments and also to explore the boundaries of present knowledge about the subject in the form of researchable areas of interest. At present the literature about Chinese modern architecture and urbanism is relatively sparse, particularly in an analytical and critical mode of inquiry.